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ILEC Project

 Involuntary Loss of European Citizenship (ILEC) 

European citizenship is the fundamental status of EU Member State nationals. What, then, are the implications when a state deprives a European citizen of his or her nationality? A new project funded by the European Commission’s DG Justice and coordinated by the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) in collaboration with the University of Maastricht and EUDO CITIZENSHIP aims to investigate this under-researched field. Since 2012, ILEC (Involuntary Loss of European Citizenship: Exchanging Knowledge and Identifying Guidelines for Europe) has carried out a comparative study of the law and practices governing loss of nationality across the 28 Member States. A key question it sought to answer is what impact the development of European citizenship is having on national competences covering the acquisition and loss of nationality in light of increasing jurisprudence from the Court of Justice and European Court of Human Rights. Consult the website of the ILEC project

The Final ILEC conference ‘EU citizenship at the crossroads: Enhancing European cooperation in nationality and fundamental rights’, took place in Brussels, 11-12 December 2014. Download the programme and Consult the ILEC guidelines on Involuntary Loss of European Citizenship (2015)


ILEC Comparative Reports

Maarten Peter Vink and Ngo Chun LukMapping statistics on loss of nationality in the EU: A new online database (December 2014)

Gérard-René de Groot and Patrick Wautelet: Reflections on quasi-loss of nationality in comparative, International and European perspective (August 2014)

Gérard-René de Groot: Survey on rules on loss of nationality in international treaties and case laws (September 2013)

Gérard-René de Groot and Maarten Peter VinkA Comparative Analysis of Regulations on Involuntary Loss of Nationality in the European Union (Jan 2015)

Sergio Carrera: How much does EU citizenship cost? The Maltese citizenship-for-sale affair: A breakthrough for sincere cooperation in citizenship of the union? (April 2014)


ILEC Policy briefs

Gerard-René de Groot and Maarten Peter Vink: Best Practices in Involuntary Loss of Nationality in the EU (December 2014)

Sergio Carrera and Gerard-René de Groot: European Citizenship at the Crossroads: Enhancing European Cooperation on Acquisition and Loss of Nationality (December 2014). 

Gerard-René de Groot, Patrick Wautelet: How to deal with quasi-loss of nationality situations? Learning from promising practices (December 2014)

Maarten Peter Vink, Ngo Chun Luk: Statistics on Loss of Nationality in the EU (December 2014)

Ngo Chun Luk: EU Citizenship at the Crossroads Enhancing European Cooperation in Nationality and Fundamental Rights (European Network on Statelessness - blog entry)


Statistical Database on Loss of Citizenship

The database offers aggregate data from 1985 onwards on the total numbers of loss of citizenship in a country, as well as on modes of loss of citizenship, in the 28 Member States of the European Union. These data are summarised in charts on each country statistics page and can be downloaded in spreadsheet format for further analysis. 

Access the Database



The ILEC project is co-financed under the Fundamental Rights and Citizenship Programme of the European Union.