Comparing Citizenship Laws: Acquisition of Citizenship
EUDO CITIZENSHIP Database on Modes of Acquisition of Citizenship in Europe
The EUDO CITIZENSHIP Database on Modes of Acquisition of Citizenship in Europe includes information on the different ways in which citizenship can be acquired in 41 European states. Citizenship laws often use different terms for similar rules. Comparing legal provisions on acquisition and loss of citizenship requires therefore a standardisation of terms and definitions. The database is organized around a comprehensive typology of modes of acquisition of citizenship which outlines, in a systematic way, 27 ways in which citizenship can be acquired. For each mode of acquisition the typology outlines a standardized 'target person' which allows comparing rules applicable to similar groups across countries.
The database allows two types of searches (search types cannot be combined):
- Country: search by country and view all regulations in one country.
- Mode: search by mode and view regulations across countries.
Both search types provide precise information on specific national rules on the procedures and conditions for the acquisition of citizenship. The information can be downloaded in .csv format (see link at the bottom of each table which is produced by the search functionality).
For a clarification of the terms used in this database, please refer to the EUDO Citizenship Glossary.
The information included in the database is based on detailed comparative questionnaires answered by citizenship experts in all of the countries covered by EUDO CITIZENSHIP.
The EUDO CITIZENSHIP Database on Modes of Acquisition of Citizenship in Europe is developed and maintained by a project team of EUDO CITIZENSHIP consortium members at Maastricht University (Maarten Vink, coordinator and Olivier Vonk) and University College Dublin (Iseult Honohan), with important input and feedback from Rainer Baubock (European University Institute) and Gerard-René de Groot (Maastricht University). Sara Goodman Wallace (UC Irvine) contributed to an earlier version of this database. The typology of modes of acquisition of citizenship builds on earlier work by Harald Waldrauch (see more information here).
This database is made available freely for non-commercial use by the general public. We ask that users of the database acknowledge its source when using the data in their publications. Please cite as follows:
Maarten Vink, Olivier Vonk and Iseult Honohan (2013). EUDO CITIZENSHIP Database on Modes of Acquisition of Citizenship in Europe. San Domenico di Fiesole: European University Institute.
For questions about this database, please contact Maarten Vink.
The EUDO CITIZENSHIP Law Indicators (CITLAW), which are based on the information included in this database, allow for easy visualization of key differences between countries in terms of their regulations with regard to the acquisition and loss of citizenship. For more information, see here.
For more extensive comparative analyses of the rules concerning acquisition and loss of citizenship in Europe, see here.
The information in the database has been checked to the best of our knowledge. However, as in some cases our interpretation of existing provisions may be incorrect or outdated, we always encourage individuals to confirm information on national citizenship provisions with national authorities. We do not offer information or counselling to individuals interested in acquiring the citizenship of a particular country.