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Comparing Citizenship Laws: Loss of Citizenship

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Mode L05: Acquisition of foreign citizenship

Country Year Article in law Procedure Conditions Changes since 1985
Albania2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.No major changes
Austria2016 AUT 27, 28LapsePerson acquires citizenship of another country on the basis of an application, a declaration or an explicit expression of consent, and has not obtained permission to retain citizenship. Permission to retain citizenship may be granted if the person has acquired citizenship by descent and special reasons exist that are related to the person's private or family life, or -in case the person is a minor- if this is in the interests of the child.1998, 2005
Belgium2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.2007: repealed.
Bosnia and Herzegovina2016 BiH 17AutomaticPerson acquires a foreign citizenship voluntarily, unless provided otherwise by a bilateral agreement with the state in question. 1997: introduced.
Bulgaria2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.1948: repealed.
Croatia2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.No major changes
Cyprus2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.No major changes
Czech Republic2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.1993: introduced. 2014: repealed.
Denmark2016 Non.a.n.a.2015: repealed.
Estonia2016 EST 29LapsePerson voluntarily acquires citizenship of another country.1992, 1995
Finland2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.2003: repealed.
France2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.1973: repealed.
Germany2016 GER 25LapsePerson acquires citizenship of another country by naturalisation and does not obtain permission to retain German citizenship (discretionary). Provision does not apply if person acquires citizenship of an EU Member State or Switzerland.2000, 2007
Greece2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.No major changes
Hungary2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.1957: repeal
Iceland2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.No major changes
Ireland2016 IRE 19(1)(e)WithdrawalPerson voluntarily acquires citizenship of another country otherwise than by marriage and acquired Irish citizenship by naturalisation.No major changes
Italy2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.1992: repealed.
Kosovo2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.No major changes
Latvia2016 LAT 9(1), 23(2), 24(1)(1)WithdrawalPerson acquires citizenship of another country (and is under an obligation to inform the Latvian authorities of this within 30 days). Unless this country is a Member State of the EU, EFTA or NATO, Australia, Brazil or New Zealand, or a country with which Latvia concluded a dual citizenship agreement. Person may receive permission from the government if retention of Latvian citizenship is in the State.1994 (introduced), 1995, 1998, 2013
Liechtenstein2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.No major changes
Lithuania2016 LIT 24(2), 26(2)LapsePerson acquires citizenship of another country (there are exceptions). Person should inform Lithuania within 2 months of acquisition of citizenship of the other country).1991 (introduced), 2002, 2006, 2008, 2010
Luxembourg2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.2009: repealed.
Macedonia2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.No major changes
Malta2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.2000: repealed.
Moldova2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.No major changes
Montenegro2016 MON 24(1)WithdrawalPerson voluntarily acquires citizenship of another country. Provision does not apply when a dual citizenship agreement exists with that country.2008
Netherlands2016 NET 15(1)(a), 16(1)(e)LapsePerson voluntarily acquires citizenship of another country. Provision does not apply if person is born and resides in another country, or resided in another country for 5 years before majority, or is married to a citizen of another country (adults), or his/her parent is citizen of the Netherlands (minors), or acquired citizenship by birth in the Netherlands. No exception to main rule if Article 1 of 1963 Strasbourg Convention applies.1985, 2003
Norway2016 NOR 23LapsePerson voluntarily acquires citizenship of another country.2006
Poland2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.No major changes
Portugal2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.1981: repealed.
Romania2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.1948: repealed.
Russia2016 RUS 6(2)n.a.n.a.No major changes
Serbia2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.No major changes
Slovakia2016 SLK 9(1)(b)LapsePerson acquires citizenship of another country otherwise than by birth or marriage.2010: introduced.
Slovenia2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.No major changes
Spain2016 SPA 24(1)LapsePerson resides abroad, acquires citizenship of another country and does not submit a declaration to retain citizenship within three years. Provision does not apply to citizens of Latin American countries, Andorra, the Philippines, Equatorial Guinea or Portugal. Provision does not apply in time of war.1990, 2002
Sweden2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.2001: repealed.
Switzerland2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.No major changes
Turkey2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.No major changes
Ukraine2016 UKR 19(1)WithdrawalPerson has voluntarily acquired foreign citizenship after the age of 18. Loss cannot result in statelessness.1997: introduced. Since 2001: specification when acquisition of foreign citizenship is not to be considered voluntary and introduction of the safeguard against statelessness.
United Kingdom2016 No provisionn.a.n.a.No major changes

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Article in law: articles refer to the consolidated version of the current citizenship law of a specific country, as provided at the profile page of each country, unless stated otherwise. Material conditions may be specified in lower level legislation, such as circulars or regulations. In contrast to Europe, the states in the Americas and the Caribbean frequently address citizenship in their Constitutions. The database uses 'Const' as a short-hand when referring to constitutional provisions.

Procedure: refers to the procedures for acquiring or losing citizenship. Please refer to the Citizenship Glossary for an explanation of the different procedures.

Conditions: refers to the conditions for acquiring or losing citizenship, in addition to the general condition stated in the description of each target group. Unless indicated otherwise a "person" refers to a person who has reached the age of majority and "residence" refers to legal residence only (as defined by national law).

Changes: refers to major changes in the citizenship legislation of a country. Generally changes since 1980 are covered and only the year of a change is indicated. For some countries the content of these changes is described in more detail. In future updates of the Database the goal is to do so for relevant changes in all countries included in the Database.