Protection against Statelessness Data

Protection against statelessness database

The EUDO CITIZENSHIP / UNHCR Database on Protection Against Statelessness in Europe, developed by the EUDO CITIZENSHIP Observatory in cooperation with UNHCR, includes information on the extent to which citizenship laws in 41 European states* provide sufficient protection against statelessness, in light of the most important international standards. The database is organized around a comprehensive typology of modes of protection against statelessness which outlines, in a systematic way, 17 categories of persons that are at risk of being or becoming stateless. The typology of modes of protection against statelessness follows the logic of a more general typology on the modes of acquisition of citizenship and modes of loss of citizenship, as developed by the EUDO CITIZENSHIP Observatory. It contains information about laws in place on 1 January 2013.

The database allows two types of searches (search types cannot be combined):

  • Country: search by country and view all regulations in one country.
  • Mode: search by mode and view regulations across countries.
Search by Country:
Search by Mode:

Both search types provide precise information on specific national rules on the procedures and conditions for the acquisition and loss of citizenship and the extent to which these rules provide sufficient protection against statelessness. Each assessment is grounded in an analysis of national rules in light of international norms on the protection against statelessness and refers to precise sources of international norms on safeguards against statelessness.

For a clarification of the terms used in this database, please refer to the EUDO Citizenship Glossary.

For a more extensive discussion of the relevant international norms on protection against statelessness, on the comparative methodology and a comprehensive discussion of the assessment of national rules in 36 Europe states, see a comparative report on protection against statelessness in Europe.

The EUDO CITIZENSHIP / UNHCR Database on Protection Against Statelessness in Europe is developed and maintained by Maastricht University as core partner of EUDO CITIZENSHIP. The project team at Maastricht University consists of Gerard-René de GrootMaarten Vink (coordinator) and Olivier Vonk.

This database is made available freely for non-commercial use by the general public. We ask that users of the database acknowledge its source when using the data in their publications. Please cite as follows:

Vonk, O., M. Vink and G.R. de Groot (2013). EUDO CITIZENSHIP / UNHCR Database on Protection against Statelessness in Europe. San Domenico di Fiesole: Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute.

For questions about this database, please contact Olivier Vonk.

For more information on statelessness, see the UNHCR Action on Statelessness and the European Network on Statelessness.


* The inclusion of Kosovo in this database is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo Declaration of Independence.