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Recent publications on citizenship laws and policies


Brexit and Loss of EU Citizenship: Cases, Options, Perceptions

By Georgia Austin-Greenall and Sylwia Lipinska, ECAS, 2017

Following the referendum on 23 June 2016, which yielded a narrow victory for the ‘Leave’ party, much ink has been spilt on the legal consequences of Britain’s vote to leave the European Union. Particular attention has been paid to the residence status of the millions of UK nationals residing elsewhere in the EU and EU citizens living and working in the UK. Yet, whilst the right to reside has been much discussed,a topic that deserves further discussion is the consequences of ‘Brexit’ for European citizenship. This paper’s aim is to consider the effect of Brexit upon the loss of EU citizenship as a status, both in terms of its practical effect and theoretical side effects.

Full study here.



Understanding Membership in a World of Global Migration: (How) Does Citizenship Matter?


By Irene Bloemraad and Alicia Sheares, International Migration Review, 2017

This article synthesizes the literature on citizenship and immigration to evaluate the heft of citizenship and theorize why it matters. We examine why citizenship laws vary cross-nationally and why some immigrants acquire citizenship while others do not. We consider how citizenship influences rights, identities, and participation and the mechanisms by which citizenship could influence lives. We consider frameworks, such as cultural and performative citizenship, that de-center legal status and the nation-state. Ultimately, we argue for a claims-making approach to citizenship, one that is a relational process of recognition, includes actors outside the individual/state dyad, and focuses on claims to legitimate membership.

Details at the journal’s website.


Citizenship in hard times: intra-EU naturalisation and the Euro crisis

By Hannah M. Alarian, JEMS, 2017

Demarcated by growing austerity, economic uncertainty, and EU-exits, the past decade witnessed monumental shifts across the political and economic landscapes of Europe. Citizenship is a stabilising force in this era of crisis, particularly for intra-EU migrants. In this contribution, I examine how the Euro crisis impacted citizenship acquisition among these migrants. Building upon the model proposed by John Graeber’s article [2016. ‘Citizenship in the shadow of the Euro crisis: explaining changing patterns in naturalisation among intra-EU migrants.’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 42 (10): 1670–1692], I discuss the relative importance of citizenship in times of crisis from global and regional perspectives. I argue Graeber’s theory presents a strong model for citizenship acquisitions during the crisis, yet leaves the core dyadic structure and several inconsistent findings unexamined. I replicate these models and introduce a dyadic model using bilateral data from 21 receiving and 23 sending states in Europe between 2007 and 2013. Contrary to Graeber’s theory, I find citizenship acquisitions among intra-EU migrants primarily coincide with increased in-migration, rather than influences of the Euro crisis. I conclude that while economic sending and receiving contexts matter, the Euro crisis did not appear to restructure intra-EU migrant citizenship incentives.

Details at the journal’s website.



Trajectories of emigrant quasi-citizenship: a comparative study of Mexico and Turkey

By Rusen Yasar, Comparative Migration Studies, 2017

In two of the busiest migration corridors of the twentieth century, namely Mexico-US and Turkey-Germany, migrants can today be dual citizens. However, the acceptance of dual citizenship did not occur automatically; instead, it followed a period of legal statuses short of full citizenship. This paper conceptualises such statuses as quasi-citizenship, a transitional equilibrium between the absence of plural citizenship and the existence of transnational migration. Focusing on sending states, the emergence of emigrant quasi-citizenship is thus explained, first, in terms of whether the reciprocal regimes of emigration and immigration states diverge on the acceptance of plural citizenship. Second, the stance towards plural citizenship is explained in terms of the experience with emigration. It is then shown that, in the case of Mexico, the legacy of undesired emigration weakened the incentives to adapt the territorial conception of citizenship to expatriates, hence creating quasi-citizens, and in the case of Turkey, the higher political relevance of expatriates, who could have the host country citizenship, reinforced the external dimension of the ethno-cultural conception of citizenship.

Details at the journal’s website.


The revival of citizenship deprivation in France and the UK as an instance of citizenship renationalisation

By Émilien Fargues, Citizenship Studies, 2017

Over the past 20 years, rules governing citizenship stripping have been debated and modified several times in France and Britain. Through this process, deprivation of citizenship has been transformed into a sanction that specifically targets ‘Islamist’ terrorists. This article examines the revival of citizenship deprivation from the mid-1990s onwards and draws on parliamentary debates, legal cases and interviews with lawyers and officials. It shows that governments develop strategies to make sure they are able to rid themselves of individuals whom they present as dangerous to the nation, even if this implies going back on or bypassing human rights norms. The theoretical argument put forward is that deprivation forms part of an effort to ‘renationalise’ citizenship, that is, to reassert national membership as a privilege that states can take back and to prove that this membership still matters both to provide individuals with rights and to protect the national community’s identity.

Details at the journal’s website.