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Recent publications on citizenship laws and policies

 

Regulating Political Incorporation of Immigrants - Naturalisation Rates in Europe

By David Reichel, ICMPD Working Paper No. 4, December 2012

This paper describes and analyses the usefulness of naturalisation rates as an indicator for political incorporation of migrants in Europe. This paper was developed in light of the production of indicators of migrant integration across Europe by the European Commission, endorsed by the Ministerial Conference in Zaragoza in 2010. One such indicator is generally defined as the "share of immigrants that have acquired citizenship". This paper provides an overview of naturalisation rates in Europe by analysing existing data since 1998, discussing and examining different ways of calculating naturalisation rates, as well as seeking to explain differences in naturalisation rates across time and space. In addition, a case study on naturalisation rates in Austria is included, to further elaborate naturalisation rates. The paper shows that naturalisation rates - calculated as the percentage of annual acquisitions of citizenship to the total number of foreign citizens at the beginning of the year - are influenced by a variety of factors, including naturalisation policies and demographic developments. They, however, serve as a good general indicator for political incorporation of immigrants in European countries.

Dowload the full paper.

Russian Citizenship. From Empire to Soviet Union

By Eric Lohr, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 2012.

Russian Citizenship is the first book to trace the Russian state’s citizenship policy throughout its history. Focusing on the period from the mid-nineteenth century to the consolidation of Stalin’s power in the 1930s, Eric Lohr considers whom the state counted among its citizens and whom it took pains to exclude. His research reveals that the Russian attitude toward citizenship was less xenophobic and isolationist and more similar to European attitudes than has been previously thought—until the drive toward autarky after 1914 eventually sealed the state off and set it apart.

Drawing on untapped sources in the Russian police and foreign affairs archives, Lohr’s research is grounded in case studies of immigration, emigration, naturalization, and loss of citizenship among individuals and groups, including Jews, Muslims, Germans, and other minority populations. Lohr explores how reform of citizenship laws in the 1860s encouraged foreigners to immigrate and conduct business in Russia. For the next half century, citizenship policy was driven by attempts to modernize Russia through intensifying its interaction with the outside world. But growing suspicion toward non-Russian minorities, particularly Jews, led to a reversal of this openness during the First World War and to a Soviet regime that deprived whole categories of inhabitants of their citizenship rights.

Lohr sees these Soviet policies as dramatically divergent from longstanding Russian traditions and suggests that in order to understand the citizenship dilemmas Russia faces today—including how to manage an influx of Chinese laborers in Siberia—we must return to pre-Stalin history.

See more on the Harvard University Press website.

Doppelte Staatsbürgerschaft bei Naturalisierung – Eine europäische Situationsanalyse unter spezieller Berücksichtigung Liechtensteins

By Martina Sochin d'Elia (collaborator Michael Kieber), Arbeitspapiere Liechtenstein-Institut Nr. 37, October 2012.

This paper deals with dual citizenship by naturalisartion. It analyses the current situation in Europe with a specific focus on Lichtenstein. Download the paper.

L'Option de Loi et les Binationaux: Peut-On Dépasser le Conflit de Nationalités?

By Patrick Wautelet, Revue Générale de Droit Civil Belge/Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Burgerlijk Recht, Vol.26, p.414-430, 2012                                                                                                                                                                 Choice of Law in Family Relationships and Multiple Nationalities - A Case for a New Approach?

In this paper I analyse the scope of the choice of law offered to parties in various family relationships (such as divorce, matrimonial contracts or alimony). In several jurisdictions and under rules of European private international law, parties may select which law will apply to their relationship. In most cases a choice may be made for the law of the nationality of the persons concerned. The question arises how such choice should be handled when the person concerned possesses several nationalities. After reviewing several possible readings, I suggest that the classical rules dealing with multiples nationalities should not be applied when the conflict of laws rules allow a party to select the applicable law.

Download the article in French on the Social Science Research Network

The Social, Political and Historical Contours of Deportation

By Anderson, Bridget; Gibney, Matthew J.; Paoletti, Emanuela (Eds), Series: Immigrants and Minorities, Politics and Policy, New York: Springer, 2013

In recent years states across the world have boosted their legal and institutional capacity to deport noncitizens residing on their territory, including failed asylum seekers, “illegal” migrants, and convicted criminals. Scholars have analyzed this development primarily through the lens of immigration control. Deportation has been viewed as one amongst a range of measures designed to control entrance, distinguished primarily by the fact that it is exercised inside the territory of the state. But deportation also has broader social and political effects. It provides a powerful way through which the state reminds noncitizens that their presence in the polity is contingent upon acceptable behavior. Furthermore, in liberal democratic states immunity from deportation is one of the key privileges that citizens enjoy that distinguishes them from permanent residents. This book examines the historical, institutional and social dimensions of the relationship between deportation and citizenship in liberal democracies. Contributions also include analysis of the formal and informal functions of administrative immigration detention, and the role of the European Parliament in the area of irregular immigration and borders. The book also develops an analytical framework that identifies and critically appraises grassroots and sub national responses to migration policy in liberal democratic societies, and considers how groups form after deportation and the employment of citizenship in this particular context, making it of interest to scholars and international policy makers alike.

Purchase the book on the publisher's website.