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Recent publications on citizenship laws and policies


Doppelte Staatsbürgerschaften als Konfliktpotential. Nationale Divergenzen unter europäischer Flagge

By Sabine Riedel, SWP-Studien 2012/S 24, October 2012.


  Access the full text in German on the SWP website.




Fortifying Citizenship: Policy Strategies for Civic Integration in Western Europe

By Sara Wallace Goodman, World Politics, Volume 64, Issue 04, October 2012, pp. 659-698
Why have European states introduced mandatory integration requirements for citizenship and permanent residence? There are many studies comparing integration policy and examining the significance of what has been interpreted as a convergent and restrictive “civic turn,” a “retreat from multiculturalism,” and an “inevitable lightening of citizenship.” None of these studies, however, has puzzled over the empirical diversity of integration policy design or presented systematic, comparative explanations for policy variation. This article is the first to develop an argument for what, in fact, amounts to a wealth of variation in civic integration policy (including scope, sequencing, and difficulty). Using a historical institutionalist approach, the author argues that states use mandatory integration to address different membership problems, which are shaped by both existing citizenship policy (whether it is inclusive or exclusive) and political pressure to change it (in other words, the politics of citizenship). She illustrates this argument by focusing on three case studies, applying the argument to a case of unchallenged restrictive retrenchment and continuity (Denmark), to a case of negotiated and thus moderated restriction (Germany), and to a case that recently exhibited both liberal continuity (the United Kingdom, 2001–6) and failed attempts at new restriction (the United Kingdom, 2006–10). These cases show that although states may converge around similar mandatory integration instruments, they may apply them for distinctly different reasons. As a result, new requirements augment rather than alter the major contours of national citizenship policy and the membership association it maintains.
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Does Citizenship Matter? The Economic Impact of Naturalizations in Germany

By Max Steinhardt, Labour Economics (19), 813-823, 2012.
This paper analyses whether citizenship acquisition affects the labour market performance of immigrants in Germany. The study uses actual micro data from the employment sample of the Institute for Employment Research, which covers more than 80% of the entire labour force in Germany. The econometric analysis has been carried out using panel data techniques, which allow to disentangle the effects of self-selection and legal impact of citizenship acquisition. Estimates from a pooled OLS specification suggest the existence of a wage premium for naturalized immigrants of both genders. Fixed effects estimates for males show an increased wage growth in the years following naturalization, consistent with the argument that naturalization increases the labour market opportunities of immigrants. Results for female employees indicate that the wage premium of naturalized women is solely the result of a positive self-selection process.

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Politische Einstellungen und politische Partizipation von Migranten in Deutschland

By Stephanie Müssig and Susanne Worbs, Working Paper 46 aus der Reihe "Integrationsreport", Teil 10

This recent study by the German Federal Office for Migration and Refugees deals with the political orientations and political participation of migrants in Germany. Download the full Working Paper (in German).


Migration and Citizenship Law in Spain: Path-dependency and Policy Change in a Recent Country of Immigration


By Alberto Martín-Pérez and Francisco Javier Moreno-Fuentes, International Migration Review, 46: 625–655, 2012

This article analyzes the links between migratory processes and the evolution of nationality legislation in Spain. We argue that this case challenges the theoretical models that link immigration to liberalizing reforms in citizenship law. Despite large-scale immigration experienced over the last two decades, Spanish nationality law has remained strongly focused on keeping ties with Spanish communities abroad. To account for the high degree of stability of Spanish citizenship law we structure our analysis along three basic lines: the historical conceptions derived from Spain's past as a colonial power, as well as its tradition as a country of emigration; the lack of incentives for political actors to introduce the reform of citizenship law in the political agenda; and the strategies adopted by those political actors in relation to the politicization of immigration.

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