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Recent publications on citizenship laws and policies


Zur Weiterentwicklungsfähigkeit des Menschenrechts auf Staatsangehörigkeit: Deutet sich in Europa ein migrationsbedingtes Recht auf Staatsangehörigkeit an - auch unter Hinnahme der Mehrstaatigkeit?

By Sükrü Uslucan, Duncker & Humblot Verlag, Berlin, 2012

This book asks how the original concept of a “right to citizenship (nationality)” has to be further developed with respect to the current context of migration and corresponding steps to Europeanise migrations policies as well as national citizenship laws, especially for home-grown migrants (second and subsequent generations). Background parameters are: the changing nature of nation-states and international law, especially in the context of the EU and emerging new meanings of human rights.
The analysis starts from the status of stateless people, especially children. Then it tries to establish the next two steps: (1) the right to be naturalised in the country of residence and (2) toleration of dual nationality. The book argues that dual nationality should be accepted at least until the 3rd or 4th generation. After the 5th generation, the migrants have to proof sufficient connections to the old home country to keep the other citizenship. A generational acceptance of dual nationality seems to be an appropriate approach for all parties involved. The idea to reduce cases of dual nationality makes sense in the long run, but it should be the law of the country of origin that cuts the connection with the diaspora. More important is that it shouldn’t any longer be an argument for the countries of residence to block migrants’ access to their citizenship – in some cases across generations – even if most of them fulfil all the requirements, except the renunciation of their previous citizenship, which is mostly due to emotional reasons rather than rational interests. Social as well psychological evidence supports the norm of “acceptance of the others” (Habermas) and a society that welcomes newcomers.

Find further information on this book here.

Debate on the coding of civic integration policies in the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies

Contributions by Ines Michalowski and Ricky van Oers and by Sara Wallace Goodman, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Volume 38, Issue 1, 2012

In their contribution, Ines Michalowski and Ricky van Oers discuss Sara Wallace Goodman's article on civic integration policies in EU 15 ('Integration Requirements for Integration's Sake? Identifying, Categorising and Comparing Civic Integration Policies', JEMS, Volume 36, Issue 5, 2010). They raise two main objections. Firstly, the scores of Goodman's Civic Integration Policy Index (CIVIX), and the policy configurations they produce to enable understanding of state membership strategies, are not replicable with scores from the Migrant Integration Policy Index III or MIPEX (Migration Policy Group 2011). They attribute this to disparities in measurement error. Secondly, there is limited analytical utility of citizenship policy in understanding why states make civic integration choices. In response to these points, Sara Wallace Goodman presents the case that MIPEX and CIVIX indices measure different dimensions of policy and use different scoring rules to do so, and that Michalowski and van Oers infer causality between citizenship and civic integration, misconstruing and misrepresenting her original interpretation of policy significance. 

Their contributions can be downloaded here.

Les frontières de l'« identité nationale ». L'injonction à l'assimilation en France métropolitaine et coloniale

Par Abdellali Hajjat, Editions La Découverte, coll. « Sciences humaines », Paris, 2012

Comment un État-nation trace-t-il les frontières de ce qu’il perçoit comme son « identité » ? Pourquoi et comment, pour y parvenir, cherche-t-il constamment à définir son extériorité au travers d’un Autre jugé « inassimilable » ? En revenant sur les origines historiques de l’injonction à l’assimilation dans la procédure de naturalisation, ce livre cherche d’abord à montrer que ces « frontières » sont mouvantes. Celles-ci sont en effet le fruit de facteurs multiples, liés au contexte social et politique aussi bien qu’aux glissements des significations et des usages du concept même d’« assimilation » (des colonies vers la métropole, du discours politique vers le juridique…).
Mais, outre cette dimension historique, ce livre novateur analyse la manière dont l’administration mesure l’« assimilation » des candidats. Grâce à une enquête minutieuse en préfecture qui aura duré deux ans (2006-2007), l’auteur met ainsi en lumière l’invention des critères d’assimilation et les usages administratifs qui en sont faits, également déterminés par la concurrence de logiques administratives distinctes, les pratiques des agents subalternes et la « naturalisabilité » des candidats.
La « vérité objective » de la naturalisation est particulièrement bien révélée par les cas de refus de naturalisation pour « défaut d’assimilation », qui concernent aujourd’hui principalement des femmes et/ou des musulmans. Ces refus soulèvent ainsi les questions du hijab, de la polygamie et de l’« islamisme », qui constituent à l’heure actuelle autant de frontières à la prétendue « identité nationale ».

Vous trouverez plus d'infos en suivant ce lien.

EU Citizenship and the Market

Edited by Richard Bellamy and Uta Staiger

This publication is the outcome of a year-long project, run by the UCL European Institute in cooperation with the European Commission Representation in London on “EU Citizenship and the Market: Rights and Identities in London’s European Communities”. The project sought to learn, convey and discuss information about the ways European citizens exercise their market-related rights when they move to, or do business with, another Member State. In particular, it aimed to understand if and how this experience affects their sense of identity and solidarity. The project involved two focus groups (in February and March 2011) composed of randomly selected EU nationals resident in London, and a final conference (in June 2011) where the project’s findings were presented and leading academics debated the nature and future prospects of Union citizenship before members of the public, including some of the focus group participants. This booklet comprises versions of all but two of the presentations from the conference.

With contributions by Rainer Bauböck, Richard Bellamy, Christian Joppke, Dora Kostakopoulou, Dimitry Kochenov, Madeleine Kennedy-Macfoy, Uta Staiger. Foreword by Jonathan Scheele.

Link to the PDF download.


Ethnic Citizenship Regimes: Europeanization, Post-war Migration and Redressing Past Wrongs

By Aleksandra Maatsch
National citizenship is still the last bastion of states' sovereignty, meaning that EU institutions cannot exercise any direct influence on national citizenship legislation in the EU member states. On the other hand, the process of political integration in the EU, international human rights' development and globalization are claimed to have indirectly challenged states' exclusive competences in that legal area. As a consequence of these processes a number of questions arise: what kind of national citizenship has developed in the member states of the European Union? Which principles have informed it? Which factors have triggered the legislative reforms? This book sheds light on the processes that have transformed national citizenship of the European Union's member states and explains the legislative changes that have taken place since the mid-1980s in Germany, Hungary and Poland.