Recent publications on citizenship laws and policies


Migrants' regional allegiances in homeland elections: evidence on voting by Poles and Ukrainians


By Anar Ahmadov & Gwendolyn Sasse, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (Dec 2014)

We examine the salience among migrants of a pervasive type of political identity neglected in the interdisciplinary scholarship on transnationalism and migrant political behaviour—homeland regional identities. Using migrants' regional background in their homelands as a proxy for their regional political identities, we estimate its effect on migrants' vote choice in homeland elections using original survey data on Polish and Ukrainian migrants. Contrary to some studies' expectations, in both cases the migrant electorates exhibit the same salient regional divisions found in domestic voting and the individual vote choice is strongly predicted by migrant voters' regional background. While being carriers of new political views that can make them agents of change in their countries of origin in some ways, transnationally active migrants can also help reproduce salient—and sometimes divisive—homeland political identities. The results also shed light on the role of other identities and factors in migrant vote choice. Access the article.  


Inherited multiple citizenships: opportunities, happenstances and improvisations among mobile young adults

By Vered Amit, Social Anthropology, 22 (4), November 2014

This paper explores the implications of inherited multiple citizenships for young Canadian adults as they experienced key life course transitions. These young adults acquired Canadian citizenship through birth but they also inherited EU and/or American citizenships through their parents. While there is a growing literature exploring state policies towards dual citizenship, this article focuses on the meanings, relationships and opportunities that two sets of siblings associated with their multiple citizenships. Navigating this kind of volatile terrain is, I argue, as likely to involve happenstance and improvisation as a careful interpretation of, or identification with the formal properties of citizenship. Access the article.



The Immigrant Inclusion Index (IMIX): A Tool for Assessing the Electoral Inclusiveness of Democracies with Respect to Immigrants

By Joachim Blatter, Samuel Schmid, and Andrea Blättler, University of Lucerne Working Paper (2014)

The paper develops the nucleus of a quantitative tool for the comparative assessment of democracies with respect to the electoral inclusion of immigrants (IMIX). The IMIX is then systematically applied to 22 European democracies. The results make clear that the electoral inclusiveness with respect to immigrants is in most countries far away from what it should be according to normative theories of democracy; and this is true independent of whether we look at the laws and regulations of these democracies or whether we evaluate how well they actually function in including immigrants. In both dimensions, we find significant differences among the European countries, though. We conclude by indicating how our evaluative concept could potentially be expanded or modified. Download the Working Paper (full text). 

No land's man: irregular migrants' challenge to immigration control and membership policies


By Andrei StavilaJournal of Ethnic and Racial Studies (2014)

Political theorists hardly ever use empirical data when they discuss the problem of irregular migration. This article tries to fill this gap by engaging with sociological records provided by the CLANDESTINO project, which has produced country reports of data and trends of undocumented migration across Europe. After criticizing the attempt to offer undocumented individuals a large package of rights even if they are not regularized, the article discusses the options left for a host state: deportation and regularization. But none of the empirical and normative reasons for which states can legitimately exclude foreigners can justify already settled irregular immigrants' expulsion. Since some form of regularization of already settled irregular migrants is thus morally required, the article surveys several views of an appropriate residence threshold and argues for a short-time threshold view of one year.

Link to the publication on the website of the Journal of Ethnic and Racial Studies. 

The (Mis)Construction of the European Individual: Two Essays on Union Citizenship Law


By Loïc Azoulai, EUI Working Paper 2014/14

European Union law has developed a concept of Union citizenship based on a right of exit from one’s country and a consequential right of entry in another Member State of the Union. ‘Empowering’ European citizens and enabling them to integrate into other Member States’ territories is its main purpose. If we seek to analyse further the concept of Union citizenship, it is almost inevitable that we inquire into the social background of this construction, the individual skills and resources it entails, the state structures and collective goods it affects. This is the puzzle with which the most acute commentators engage. Looked at this way, Union citizenship is about integration of Union citizens into national communities, financial solidarity with other Member States’ nationals and recognition of their personal identities. Ultimately it is about transnational integration and new forms of social justice within the Member States. There is, however, another way to engage with the concept. The focus on social integration is replaced by a somewhat more ambitious project: to empower the Union citizens to connect with Europe as a whole. This approach assumes that a proper regime of Union citizenship constitutes not only a right to free movement but a right to enjoy a common way of living. It would allow Union citizens to live, at least partially, in social and moral conditions which denote a far-reaching European society. If we take this project seriously, the problem, then, is as follows: how are we going to shape this project within a conceptual framework based on transnational integration? What does it mean practically to create ties between individuals who have been allowed to disaffiliate from their country of origin? To which ‘whole’ shall we refer that is not a structured state and yet does not boil down to a mere sphere of individual interests and particular social interactions? The essays presented here suggest two ways to approach this problem. The first explores the concept of ‘the territory of the Union’ enshrined in the EU legal discourse as a possible venue for this shift in understanding the project of European citizenship. The second approach tells the story of an individual who feels strongly about being a ‘European’ with the right to be recognized everywhere in Europe without being part of any definite community. The first paper is an academic article which was commissioned by Dimitry Kochenov for a forthcoming edited volume on EU Citizenship and Federalism: The Role of Rights (CUP, 2015). The second is more of a narrative or a tale and is written in French. The first essay builds upon the second. The reason for bringing them together is to show that the literary form may contribute to an understanding of complex legal issues simply by showing a state of legal affairs in its most stylised for