Recent publications on citizenship laws and policies
Morphing the Demos into the right shape. Normative principles for enfranchising resident aliens and expatriate citizens
In this article, Rainer Bauböck criticizes, first, democratic inclusion principles that are indeterminate with regard to democratic boundaries and indifferent towards the structural features of polities. He suggests that a democratic stakeholder principle passes these critical tests and can be applied to democratic polities of different kinds. Second, he compares birthright-based and residence-based membership regimes at state and local levels and considers how they can accommodate international migrants. In the third and final part, the author argues that these two regimes are not freestanding alternatives between which democratic polities have to choose, but are combined in a multilevel architecture of democratic citizenship, in which the inclusion and exclusion dynamics of birthright and residence mutually constrain each other and every individual is included as a citizen in both types of polities.
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Acquisition of Nationality as Migration Policy
by Andreu Domingo and Enrique Ortega-Rivera, in Applied Demography Series Volume 5, 2015, pp 29-54
Spain is coming to the end of its first wave of mass international migration, with Latin Americans being clearly predominant during this unprecedented period of immigration. During the 2000 s, various incentives and strategies including bilateral labor agreements between Spain and Latin American countries were issued, and represented the government’s strategy to assist and encourage immigration from Latin America, mostly due to the well-established historical ties from Spain’s past as a colonial power in the region as well as its tradition as a country of emigration, particularly to Latin American countries. The range of comprehensive government policies on migration and the existence of a legal framework based on shared cultural traits (such as language and traditions), together with the preferential treatment received under Spanish nationality law (e.g. a reduced 2-year residence requirement to apply for naturalization), have had a measurable effect in the form of growing numbers of immigrants from Latin America. Although the link between demographic and citizenship issues have had very low profiles in the political arena, we argue in this chapter for its importance in shaping the various forms of current international migration, especially with regard to subsequent circular migration and re-migration, in the midst of an economic recession.
Super-foreigners and Sub-citizens: Mapping Ethno-national Hierarchies of Foreignness and Citizenship in Europe
From the viewpoint of the state, a person is either a citizen or a foreigner. National citizenship laws divide people into citizens and foreigners. But citizenship laws also differentiate between categories of citizens and foreigners by granting certain foreigners (super-foreigners) preferential admission to citizenship and by restricting citizenship rights and privileges to certain citizens (sub-citizens). This article analyses comparatively current legal rules on the acquisition and loss of citizenship and on the exercise of citizenship privileges in 38 European countries in order to map ethno-national hierarchies of foreignness and citizenship. It builds a typology of ethno-national rules of citizenship and challenges widely held theses about the liberalisation and de-ethnicisation of citizenship regimes in Europe.
Uneven Citizenship: Minorities & Migrants in the Post-Yugoslav Space
A special issue of Ethnopolitics has just been published which features the work of members of the CITSEE team. The Europeanisation of Citizenship in the Successor States of the Former Yugoslavia (CITSEE) was a study of the citizenship regimes of the seven successor states of the former Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia).
The special issue revolves around the relations between citizenship and various manifestations of diversity including, but going beyond, ethnicity. A number of interesting recent attempts to rethink citizenship are addressed by the addition of ‘uneven citizenship’ to the debate. While referring to uneven citizenship the special issue not only engages with exclusionary legal, political and social practices but also other unanticipated or unaccounted for results of citizenship policies. The individual papers address statuses, rights, and duties of refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs), returnees, Roma, ‘claimed co-ethnics’ as well as various interactions between dominant and non-dominant groups in the post-Yugoslav space.
The World's Stateless Report
by the Institute on Statelessness and Inclusion, December 2014
The inaugural World’s Stateless report explores currently available statistical data and discusses the challenges involved in accurately mapping or quantifying statelessness. From this analysis, the report distills recommendations to states, UNHCR and civil society on how to improve data collection and reporting on statelessness.
Access the full report.