Recent publications on citizenship laws and policies


The (Mis)Construction of the European Individual: Two Essays on Union Citizenship Law


By Loïc Azoulai, EUI Working Paper 2014/14

European Union law has developed a concept of Union citizenship based on a right of exit from one’s country and a consequential right of entry in another Member State of the Union. ‘Empowering’ European citizens and enabling them to integrate into other Member States’ territories is its main purpose. If we seek to analyse further the concept of Union citizenship, it is almost inevitable that we inquire into the social background of this construction, the individual skills and resources it entails, the state structures and collective goods it affects. This is the puzzle with which the most acute commentators engage. Looked at this way, Union citizenship is about integration of Union citizens into national communities, financial solidarity with other Member States’ nationals and recognition of their personal identities. Ultimately it is about transnational integration and new forms of social justice within the Member States. There is, however, another way to engage with the concept. The focus on social integration is replaced by a somewhat more ambitious project: to empower the Union citizens to connect with Europe as a whole. This approach assumes that a proper regime of Union citizenship constitutes not only a right to free movement but a right to enjoy a common way of living. It would allow Union citizens to live, at least partially, in social and moral conditions which denote a far-reaching European society. If we take this project seriously, the problem, then, is as follows: how are we going to shape this project within a conceptual framework based on transnational integration? What does it mean practically to create ties between individuals who have been allowed to disaffiliate from their country of origin? To which ‘whole’ shall we refer that is not a structured state and yet does not boil down to a mere sphere of individual interests and particular social interactions? The essays presented here suggest two ways to approach this problem. The first explores the concept of ‘the territory of the Union’ enshrined in the EU legal discourse as a possible venue for this shift in understanding the project of European citizenship. The second approach tells the story of an individual who feels strongly about being a ‘European’ with the right to be recognized everywhere in Europe without being part of any definite community. The first paper is an academic article which was commissioned by Dimitry Kochenov for a forthcoming edited volume on EU Citizenship and Federalism: The Role of Rights (CUP, 2015). The second is more of a narrative or a tale and is written in French. The first essay builds upon the second. The reason for bringing them together is to show that the literary form may contribute to an understanding of complex legal issues simply by showing a state of legal affairs in its most stylised for

What Remains of the National Models of Integration? Ideal-typical constructions and social realities of immigrant incorporation in Europe

IDENTITIES Special Issue, Vol 21. no. 6 (2014)

This special issue of IDENTITIES critically discusses the contemporary validity of national models of immigrant integration in Europe. A variety of authors systematically compare the differences and similarities of their integration models in seven European countries. Although the importance of national integration has decreased with urban segregation, cultural pluralisation, European integration and globalisation for citizens and immigrants, most of the contributions in this issue show that national models of immigrant integration have not completely failed. All contributions are accessible for free for a limited period of time.



To vote or not to vote? A macro perspective.
Electoral participation by immigrants from different countries of origin in 24 European countries of destinatio

by Stéfanie André, Jaap Dronkers & Ariana Need, Research on Finnish Society Vol. 7 (2014)

Electoral participation of immigrants is an important issue in Europe, particularly because immigrants vote less often than natives. This may suggest a lack of political integration and might result in proportionally lower representation in parliament, in turn affecting democratic legitimacy. This research analyses 8,132 immigrants in 24 European countries. We find that although the largest differences are at the level of the country of destination, the measured characteristics of the country of origin offer more powerful explanations. We conclude that immigrants from countries with more political and socio-economic opportunities have a higher propensity to vote. Immigrants who live in countries with a higher economic development level also vote more often. 

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The impacts of extra-territorial voting: Swings, interregnums and feedback effects in New Zealand elections from 1914 to 2011


By Alan Gamlen, Political Geography, Vol. 44 (Jan. 2015). 

How are elections affected by the votes of people living abroad? The majority of states now allow extra-territorial voting in some form, but the research literature on this topic remains underdeveloped. Moreover, even though extra-territorial voting raises issues about the relationship between territory and political obligation that are relevant to political geographers, political geography has been under-represented in discussions on the topic. Against this background, this research examines a century of overseas voting impacts in New Zealand, a country with an unusually long recorded history of such activity. The study identifies three types of extra-territorial voting impact over the period 1914-2011, referred to as swings, interregnums and feedback effects.

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Nationality Law in the Western Hemisphere


A Study on Grounds for Acquisition and Loss of Citizenship in the Americas and the Caribbean, by Olivier W. Vonk, Brill 2014

In Nationality Law in the Western Hemisphere, Olivier Vonk provides the first comprehensive overview in English of the grounds for acquisition and loss of citizenship in the thirty-five independent countries in the Americas and the Caribbean. Employing a typology developed by the European Union Democracy Observatory on Citizenship, he convincingly shows that different nationality laws can be compared by using a systematic analytical grid. The individual country chapters additionally pay due regard to issues such as dual citizenship and statelessness, and include thorough historical observations as well as extensive bibliographical references for each state. Nationality Law in the Western Hemisphere allows academics, practitioners, governments and international organizations to assess nationality legislation beyond a purely national context.